Disks, directories and files

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  • Disks


    • Partitions


      • Active Partition
        The primary partition on a hard drive that typically contains and boots the operating system.

      • Primary Partition
        A partition on a hard drive that can contain only one logical drive.

      • Extended Partition
        Created from free space on a hard disk. It can be sub partitioned into zero or more logical drives.

      • Logical Partition
        A part of a physical disk drive that has been partitioned and allocated as an independent unit, and functions as a separate drive altogether.


    • Files Systems


      • FAT16
        A 16-bit DOS and Windows file system. Ultimate capacity of a FAT16 partition is 2GB.

      • FAT32
        A 32-bit version of the File Allocation Table. Initially came with Windows95 SR2. Supports drives up to two Terabytes.

      • NTFS4
        The NTFS file system includes security features required for file servers and high-end personal computers in a corporate environment. The NTFS file system also supports data access control and ownership privileges that are important for the integrity of critical data. While folders shared on a Windows NT computer are assigned particular permissions, NTFS files and folders can have permissions assigned whether they are shared or not. NTFS is the only file system on Windows NT that allows you to assign permissions to individual files.
        The NTFS file system has a simple, yet very powerful design. Basically, everything on the volume is a file and everything in a file is an attribute, from the data attribute, to the security attribute, to the file name attribute. Every sector on an NTFS volume that is allocated belongs to some file. Even the file system metadata (information that describes the file system itself) is part of a file.

      • NTFS5.x
        NTFS 5.0 was the third version of NTFS to be introduced to the Windows (2000) world by Microsoft. It included several new features: quotas, sparse file support, reparse points, distributed link tracking and the Encrypting File System (EFS).



  • Directory Structures (root directory, subdirectories, etc)


    • Create folders

    • Navigate the directory structure

    • Maximum depth


  • Files


    • Creating Files

    • File naming conventions (Most common extensions, 8.3, maximum length)
      In DOS worden eenvoudige bestandsnamen gebruikt. Deze bestaan uit maximaal acht tekens, eventueel gevolgd door een punt en een toevoeging van maximaal drie tekens (de extensie). In het algemeen zijn tekens die elders in DOS gebruikt worden, verboden in bestandsnamen. Daartoe behoren bijvoorbeeld de slash (/) en backslash (\), maar ook de rechte haken ([ en ]). puntkomma, dubbelepunt, komma, plusteken, isgelijkteken en spaties.
      Voor de combinatie van lettertekens in de extensie zijn er meer beperkingen. Sommige tekencombinaties zijn gereserveerd door DOS. Andere tekencombinaties worden in toepassingen gebruikt om een bepaald soort bestand te herkennen. Veel programma's laten eigenlijk alleen toe dat de eerste acht letters vrij te gebruiken zijn.
      Het besturingssysteem DOS kent vier gereserveerde extensies.


      • De extensie SYS wordt gebruikt door het besturingssysteem zelf. Veel bestanden met deze extensie worden gebruikt bij het starten van het besturingssysteem.

      • De extensies COM en EXE horen bij gecompileerde programma's die in MS-DOS uitgevoerd kunnen worden.

      • De extensie BAT wordt gebruikt voor tekstbestanden die regel voor regel DOS-opdrachten of programma's uitvoeren (batch-bestanden).



    • File attributes - Read Only, Hidden, System, and Archive attributes
      File attributes can be used to write-protect, hide, and unhide files, or as behind-the-scenes file maintenance. The attributes are called Read Only, Hidden, Archive, and System, and are described below:
      Read Only: A file that is marked Read Only cannot be altered. It can be read, but it cannot be changed or deleted.
      Hidden: By default, hidden files do not appear in a directory listing.
      Archive: The Archive attribute can be used to selectively back up or copy files; it is most helpful in DOS.
      System: System files are files flagged for use by the operating system and are not usually displayed in a directory listing.

    • File Compression
      This makes computer data smaller so less is needed to represent the same information and, consequently, the information takes up less disk or file space and may be transmitted in less time.

    • File Encryption

    • File Permissions
      You can assign the files at various levels of permissions, specifying who can access a file, and what type of access they can have like read, write and execute.

    • File types (text vs binary file)
      It refers to the type of information that a file contains.



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